Originally published at: https://blog.12min.com/the-muqaddimah-summary/
In general, we as humans have started losing our physical endurance from the day we began thinking. The evolvement process for us and other species never ended.
To compensate for our physical vulnerability, we begun functioning in groups.
Who Should Read “The Muqaddimah”? And Why?If you are history lover, or eager to study the process of evolution from another standpoint, then this is the book for you.
About Ibn KhaldunIbn Khaldun’s day of birth is assumed to be 27th May 1352. He was a renowned scholar, philosopher, historian and according to some the founder of sociology and demography.
Ibn is best known for The Muqaddimah, even among Westerners.
"The Muqaddimah Summary"People used to find peace in social interactions and seeking ways to improve their way of life through various forms of cooperation. In such regard, we have transformed from defenseless to protected. When our ancestors looked for food driven by hunger, the frightening, and blood-thirsty carnivores posed a threat to our existence.
However, according to Ibn Khaldun, God gave us something far more powerful than any weaponry or claws - the ability of thinking. Over the years we sharpened our senses and developed the native wit for protection issues.
The ability to plunge into a discussion, interact, and think of solutions distinguish us as human beings from other species. That’s the basis of survival that aided the humankind for centuries and continues in the same fashion.
The 14th century is enriched with mysteries and dark moments. The never-ending wars carved new mentality that was spontaneously embraced to survive such hostile environment. People who used to live in areas of temperate climate are also known for their tenderness and calmness in both body and mind.
The same thing refers to clothing, surviving, working, etc. The mindset of these people was accompanied by wisdom which ultimately gave birth to a new era, where war was not the only solution.
Nevertheless, the topic of today’s discussion is linked to the differences between cultures, nations, and communities. The author takes on the Berbers as an illustration to this point.
According to his expertise, the North-African Berbers (a large group) who enjoyed the privilege of having wheat and plentiful harvest, were slightly “slower” regarding knowledge and wisdom. On the other hand, the Masumudah Berbers who lived in Morocco, their healthy diet generated and produced a new group of thinkers.
The basic differentiation:
- Christians walk under the light of their savior Jesus Christ.
- Buddhist are passionate about the meditation techniques practiced by the Gautama Buddha.
- Muslims, mostly the Arabic nations follow the guidance of the prophet Muhammad.
Yes, there are thousands of religions and spiritual paths all brought by various prophets, but in this case, we’ll stick to the three widespread collective beliefs. According to Ibn Khaldun, the Qur’an is the most celebrated phenomenon or an accidental masterpiece that brought light on the “dark” Arabia.
What is the meaning of this?
Well, Ibn lays out some interesting facts such as the Torah is written on behalf of God, the same goes for the Bible, but the Qur’an, on the other hand, is written by God himself. We leave you to judge and interpret this statement.
In a clash of titans, the battlefield will decide – which group dominates. Obviously, absent a strong determination, and energy – a loss is inevitable. To avoid defeat, the leaders of these early organizations had to lift the spirits of all members, put their oratory skills to the test, and push themselves beyond the limits by not doubting the cause as righteous.
The story of God creating the world has many angles and viewpoints, here we are going to stick to the elementary laws of evolution. However, the real question arises from the ashes of morality. From where do our tendencies to do good deeds and commit terrible crimes emerge?
The harsh laws and egoistic reign can produce monsters. Since the beginning of civilization, the rulers and their state regulations laid down the foundation for developing an evil mentality that was consistently spreading among the residents.
We leave you in a dilemma and give you several lessons that you can utilize in life.
Key Lessons from “The Muqaddimah”1. The power of doubt 2. The troubling mind 3. The birth of social groups
The power of doubtDuring any struggle, people are prone to shift sides and doubt the outcome. If the other group take as gospel their main motto, the chances of victory increase. The victor is going to be decided after the test of faith!
The troubling mindAccording to the author, the devil is responsible for whispering all the mean things. In other words, we are tested to resist the temptation to follow that evil voice inside our head.
The origin of evil has its roots deeply embedded in animal consciousness as well. The battle for survival is responsible for getting the best and the worst of each one of us, but what about the pure evil?
If that’s the case, say thanks to the royal authority.
The birth of social groupsThe strong belief and faith give rise to groups which are bounded by a sacred feeling.
The infiltration is only feasible if the new member shares the same passion and understands the intimacy among the participants.
This is a dangerous combination if we take into consideration the many wars that occurred between such groups.
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“The Muqaddimah” Quotes[bctt tweet="When trouble arose between 'All and Mu'awiyah as a necessary consequence of group feeling, they were guided in (their dissensions) by the truth and by independent judgment. They did not fight for any worldly purpose or over preferences of no value, or for reasons of personal enmity. This might be suspected, and heretics might like to think so. However, what caused their difference was their independent judgment as to where the truth lay. It was on this matter that each side opposed the point of view of the other. It was for this that they fought. Even though 'Ali was in the right, Mu'awiyah's intentions were not bad ones. He wanted the truth, but he missed. Each was right in so far as his intentions were concerned." username="get12min"]
[bctt tweet=“The term of life of a dynasty does not normally exceed three generations. For in the first generation are still preserved the characteristic features of rough, uncivilized rural life, such as hard conditions of life, courage, ferocity, and partnership in authority. Therefore the strength of the 'Asabiya is maintained …” username=“get12min”]
[bctt tweet=“Throughout history many nations have suffered a physical defeat, but that has never marked the end of a nation. But when a nation has become the victim of a psychological defeat, then that marks the end of a nation.” username=“get12min”]