Originally published at: https://blog.12min.com/silent-spring-pdf/
Our Silent Spring PDF Summary examines how Rachel Carson’s famous book almost singlehandedly brought an end to the uncontrolled usage of DDT and other pesticides, and how it inspired ecologists and environmentalists worldwide to take a stand.
In January 1958, Olga Owens Huckins, a worried American citizen, wrote a letter to “The Boston Herald,” claiming that many birds around her property had died in torment as a result of a recent aerial DDT spraying operation, directed primarily at mosquitos.
Her friend, the famous marine biologist Rachel Carson, got a copy of the letter. After reading it quite a few times, and dedicatedly researching for the next four years, she realized that the letter wasn’t merely a peculiar observation, but a painful cry for help.
Not just on behalf of Huckins. But on behalf of Nature itself.
“Silent Spring” was Carson’s heart-wrenching attempt at giving Nature her voice. And, fortunately for us, the generations living after, the people of her time heard.
Who Should Read “Silent Spring”? And Why?Published on 27 September 1962, “Silent Spring” was almost single-handedly responsible for turning the eye of the American nation – and, subsequently, the world – to the possible adverse effects of DDT and other synthetic pesticides.
And, as former U.S. presidential candidate and Nobel Peace Prize winner Al Gore wrote in the foreword to the anniversary 1992 edition, it “had a profound effect.” And that may even be an understatement – see “Our Critical Review” section for more.
In other words, even if you haven’t read “Silent Spring,” you may already adhere to it in your behavior. If you love nature and hate chemicals – it’s Rachel Carson’s fault. Read the book she’s most famous for and find it how.
About Rachel CarsonRachel L. Carson was an American marine biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Soon after, she turned to writing and, during the 1950s, she completed a critically lauded and lyrically written sea trilogy.
Published in 1951, “The Sea Around Us” was so successful that it was turned into an Academy Award-winning documentary the following year.
“The Edge of the Sea” followed, together with a reissuing of her first (then poorly selling) book, “Under the Sea Wind,” recognized today as one of the “definitive works of American nature writing."
In 1958, she started writing “Silent Spring” which she completed in 1962, even though bedridden with diseases and diagnosed with cancer which will ultimately claim her life in 1964.
“Silent Spring” started an environmentalist revolution, and irreversibly changed the course of history.
"Silent Spring PDF Summary"“There was once a town in the heart of America where all life seemed to live in harmony with its surroundings.”
That’s how “A Fable for Tomorrow,” the first chapter of “Silent Spring” commences – with a fictional story about a fictional idyllic town about to have some real-world problems.
Because, out of nowhere, a strange blight begins to creep over the area and everything starts to change. Maladies strike the animals; the farmers speak of family illnesses; several sudden and unexplained deaths baffle the town doctors.
A strange silence looms over the city; there are no birds in the sky. The spring is without voices – only silence lays over the fields and woods and marsh.
And the reason for all this?
A white granular powder – which “some weeks before… had fallen like snow upon the roofs and the lawns, the fields and the streams.”
“No witchcraft, no enemy action had silenced the rebirth of new life in this stricken world,” concludes Carson the story. “The people had done it themselves.”
Because the white granular powder has a name. In fact, over 500 of them. And they are almost all neatly packed under a falsely reassuring umbrella-term: “pesticides.” The government tells you that they are helping us fight diseases.
The truth, however, may be much closer to the moral of the bleak cautionary tale: pesticides kill. And not just insects.
And already in the next chapters – “The Obligations to Endure,” “Elixirs of Death,” “Surface Waters and Underground Seas” – Carson puts her money where her mouth is. She starts documenting numerous tragedies stemming from pesticide use. According to her, specialists interested in making them more efficient, have begun ignoring the overall picture.
Pesticides are more and more efficient in eliminating certain insects, but are less and less efficient in doing that without harming the environment.
Birds suffer, fish suffer; even the human nervous system suffers from time to time. Water treatment plants don’t remove the chemicals because some of them form irreducible toxic compounds. Thus, Carson fears, even the water may become more and more polluted in the future, resulting in the rise of cancer victims.
Here are just two examples illustrating the dark and worrying way these pesticides pollute the environment.
During the fall of 1959, writes Carson in the seventh chapter of her book, “Needless Havoc,” about 27,000 acres were heavily dusted “with clay pellets containing one of the most poisonous of all the insecticides – a chemical called aldrin.”
Eliminating the whole population of Japanese beetles, noted pests of over 200 species of plants, first imported in the U.S. by accident sometime before the beginning of World War I.
Some perspective before we go on.
You see, now we know that aldrin is a notorious persistent organic pollutant (POP), but back in 1962 when “Silent Spring” was published, spraying it over an area caused as much an outrage as heavy summer rain.
In fact, people were explicitly told over the radio that they can go on doing whatever they were doing at the time since the pesticide was supposed to be harmless.
Highly lipophilic – i.e., dissolvable in lipids – aldrin can’t be washed away by water easily, since, on the contrary, its water solubility is very low. So, it stays to do damage well after the dusting occurs.
Not much time passed before people started noticing a large number of dead birds all around. They couldn’t know that even the birds which survived had their reproductive systems irreparably damaged. Veterinarians reported many cases of pet poisoning – cats especially. And doctors had problems to pinpoint the reasons behind the outbreak of nausea, vomiting, chills, and fever.
The sad part of the story?
There was absolutely no need for any dusting. The number of Japanese beetles hadn’t increased for over thirty years. It was merely the cheapest pesticide available.
Unfortunately, this wasn’t the only way some animals – especially birds – suffered.
“Over increasingly large areas of the United States,” writes Carson, “spring now comes unheralded by the return of the birds, and the early mornings are strangely silent where once they were filled with the beauty of birdsong.”
A chilling description – but a largely correct one. Especially if you take into account how easily environmental changes can affect the birds.
The second story proves this best.
In 1930, Dutch elm disease – a fungus disease which spreads by spores – was accidentally imported into the U.S. from Europe. The American elm tree is directly linked to the lifestyle of robins, so a twofold alarm was raised. And in 1954, the spraying began.
Two ornithologists working at Michigan State University soon noticed how the sprayed campus transformed into a sort of “graveyard for most of the robins that attempt to take up residence in the spring.”
Because robins ate earthworms that had consumed the sprayed bark!
And as if these stories are not enough – though the book has many more – Carson points out two more reasons why spraying insecticides is not only unnecessary but downright unintelligent.
First of all, it results in a disruption in the checks-and-balances system developed by nature through the million-year-long process of natural selection.
Now, insecticides didn’t only kill harmful insects – it also killed their predators. So, in a way, in trying to eliminate our enemy, we were eradication our allies as well.
This, in turn, resulted, not only in over-reliance on pesticides – but also in insects’ resistance to them. And if you’ve ever watched Del Toro’s 1997 “Mimic” you already know where that may ultimately take us.
Key Lessons from “Silent Spring”1. Humans Are Part of Nature – Not Out of It 2. Pesticides Don’t Usually Work – for Two Reasons 3. The Dangers of the New Era
Humans Are Part of Nature – Not Out of ItWherever there’s some system, there’s also some balance in it. The Universe itself – as giant as it is – is a system: and a self-regulated one, indeed.
The Earth is a system as well. And its biosphere a system within this system.
However, humans tend to forget that. Starting from the very fact that they’re, in fact, animals – just a bit more evolved than most. And ending with a simple truism: when you are a part of a system, you can’t make changes within it, without being affected yourself.
But, don’t let us tell you.
Hear Chief Seattle’s speech – as read by beloved mythologist Joseph Campbell. Here’s the most relevant excerpt: “Man did not weave the web of life. He’s merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself.”
Pesticides Don’t Usually Work – for Two ReasonsIn a fragile system, every action counts.
Pesticides are humanity’s way of adapting this system to their needs. Because – never forget! – to the mind of a Japanese beetle, it is not really a pest. It merely eats to survive. Humans are the ones who have a problem with them – because the Japanese beetle eats the things they (the humans) like better than them.
However, the use of pesticides is based on a very simplified worldview. Namely – that you can use eradicate one species and do no damage to the other. This is not the case. In fact, by killing the insects we hate, we also kill the ones who eat them. And they, in this case, are our allies.
The second problem is pesticides is even more severe: pests become resistant after a while. And then, even we can’t think of ways to stop them.
The Dangers of the New EraWhen Carson was writing “Silent Spring,” Soviet scientists had already started using the term “Anthropocene” to describe the age we’re living in. Nowadays, even journalists use the term to characterize the new era, the Era of Man.
It’s a double-edged sword this power we have, predicted and warned Carson. And, very recently, Elizabeth Colbert echoed the alarm: we’re in the middle of a new extinction of species. Unlike the five which precede it, this one’s unnatural. Or to be more exact, human-made.
The bittersweet part: we’re doing it to ourselves. And we can stop it.
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“Silent Spring” Quotes[bctt tweet="This is an era dominated by industry, in which the right to make a dollar at whatever cost is seldom challenged." username="get12min"]
[bctt tweet=“Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts. There is something infinitely healing in the repeated refrains of nature – the assurance that dawn comes after night, and spring after winter.” username=“get12min”]
[bctt tweet=“Why should we tolerate a diet of weak poisons, a home in insipid surroundings, a circle of acquaintances who are not quite our enemies, the noise of motors with just enough relief to prevent insanity? Who would want to live in a world which is just not quite fatal?” username=“get12min”]
[bctt tweet=“Nature has introduced great variety into the landscape, but man has displayed a passion for simplifying it. Thus he undoes the built-in checks and balances by which nature holds the species within bounds.” username=“get12min”]
[bctt tweet=“How could intelligent beings seek to control a few unwanted species by a method that contaminated the entire environment and brought the threat of disease and death even to their own kind?” username=“get12min”]
Our Critical ReviewRachel Carson’s “Silent Spring” created a social movement, an irreversible revolution of thought.
The deep ecology movement, the grassroots environmental movement, ecofeminism – these all stemmed from “Silent Spring.” The book, wrote H. Patricia Hynes, “altered the balance of power in the world. No one since would be able to sell pollution as the necessary underside of progress so easily or uncritically."
Soon after “Silent Spring” was published, the pressure of the public resulted in the formation of Environmental Defense Fund. A few years later, the Environmental Protection Agency – described as “the extended shadow of ‘Silent Spring’” – was established, and by 1972 (a decade after “Silent Spring” first saw the light of day) DDT use was restricted to emergency-only cases.
But, the most significant victory of “Silent Spring” is something much less tangible than an act banning the use of DDT. It’s the way the book verbalized ecology as a new way of thinking about the world around us. As a title of a recent book on Carson describes it, it’s the way of “the gentle subversive.”
“Rachel Carson’s ‘Silent Spring’ played a large role in articulating ecology as a ‘subversive subject’” – writes Gary Kroll in an interesting essay, “as a perspective that cut against the grain of materialism, scientism, and the technologically engineered control of nature.”
Unsurprisingly, “Silent Spring” is considered by many to be one of the greatest nonfiction books ever written. 78th according to the editors of “National Review;” 16th in the opinion of the editors of the “Discover” magazine.
And David Attenborough claims that “Silent Spring” is “the book that most changed the scientific world,” other than Darwin’s “Origin of Species.”
And who are we to think otherwise?
Far from it:
Read it, reread it – never forget it. The world is too young to be silent.